Dictionary Codes

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Dictionary Codes

The dictionary entries contain a number of abbreviations and codes, mainly to reduce storage usage and display space.

Part of Speech

Updated 2008-04-06.

CODE MEANING CODE MEANING CODE MEANING CODE MEANING
abbr abbreviation adj-i adjective (keiyoushi) adj-na adjectival nouns or quasi-adjectives (keiyodoshi) adj-no nouns which may take the genitive case particle "no"
adj-pn pre-noun adjectival (rentaishi) adj-f noun, verb, etc. acting prenominally adj-t "taru" adjective adv adverb (fukushi)
arch archaism aux auxiliary aux-v auxiliary verb conj conjunction
ctr counter col colloquialism exp Expressions (phrases, clauses, etc.) fam familiar language
fem female term or language gikun gikun (meaning) reading hon honorific or respectful (sonkeigo) language hum humble (kenjougo) language
id idiomatic expression int interjection (kandoushi) iK word containing irregular kanji usage ik word containing irregular kana usage
io irregular okurigana usage MA martial arts term male male term or language m-sl manga slang
n noun (common) (futsuumeishi) n-adv adverbial noun (fukushitekimeishi) n-t noun (temporal) (jisoumeishi) obs obsolete term
obsc obscure term oK word containing out-dated kanji ok out-dated or obsolete kana usage pol polite (teineigo) language
prt particle pref prefix sl slang sens term with some sensitivity about its usage
suf suffix uK word usually written using kanji alone uk word usually written using kana alone v1 Ichidan verb
v5 Godan verb (not completely classified) v5u, v5k, etc. Godan verb with `u', `ku', etc. endings v5k-s Godan verb - Iku/Yuku special class v5aru Godan verb - -aru special class
v5uru Godan verb - Uru old class verb (old form of Eru) vi intransitive verb vs noun or participle which takes the aux. verb suru vs-s suru verb - special class
vk Kuru verb - special class vt transitive verb vulg vulgar expression or word vz Ichidan verb - -zuru special class (alternative form of -jiru verbs)
P "Priority" entry, i.e. among approx. 20,000 words deemed to be common in Japanese X rude or X-rated term (not displayed in educational software) - - - -

ENAMDICT only

s
surname/family-name
m male given name
f female given name u unclassified name
p
place name
h full name of a person
- - - -


Miscellaneous

For more information about the P (Priority) markers, see the Word Priority Marking section in the http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/%7Ejwb/edict_doc.html#IREF05 JMdict/EDICT documentation.

The following abbreviations are used in the Names dictionary file.

CODE MEANING CODE MEANING CODE MEANING CODE MEANING
uk word usually written using kana alone abbr abbreviation arch archaism ateji ateji reading of the kanji

col
colloquialism derog derogatory term
ek exclusively kanji, rarely just in kana fam familiar language
fem female term or language gikun gikun (meaning) reading hon honorific or respectful (sonkeigo) language hum humble (kenjougo) language
id idiomatic expression iK word containing irregular kanji usage ik word containing irregular kana usage io irregular okurigana usage
MA martial arts term male male term or language m-sl manga slang obs obsolete term
obsc obscure term oK word containing out-dated kanji ok out-dated or obsolete kana usage pol polite (teineigo) language
sens term with some sensitivity about its usage sl slang uK word usually written using kanji alone vulg vulgar expression or word

In entries which are Japanese idiomatic expressions, aphorisms, etc. the literal translation of the Japanese is sometimes shown in paretheses, preceded by "lit:". Also where the Japanese word has been constructed by transliteration of two or more foreign words or word fragments (e.g., a waseieigo - Japanese-made English), the source words are shown in parentheses, preceded by "trans:".

Language Codes

In addition to the codes above, for gairaigo which have not been derived from English words, the source language has been indicated using the three-letter codes from the ISO 639-2:1998 "Codes for the representation of names of languages" standard, e.g. ``(fre: avec)". http://xml.coverpages.org/iso639a.html

Dialects

Also there are tags which indicate that a word or phrase is associated with a particular regional language variant within Japan:

  • ksb: Kansai-ben
  • ktb: Kantou-ben
  • kyb: Kyoto-ben
  • kyu:
  • osb: Osaka-ben
  • thb:
  • tsb: Tosa-ben
  • tsug: